Large, long-term study suggests link between eating mushrooms and a lower risk of prostate cancer
An incredible study articulating the positive effects of consuming mushrooms and the prevention and risk lowering of prostate cancer. We wanted to share this study in detail as we are strong proponents of mushrooms as they are key components of our unique Infinimin® Immunity Multivitamin!
According to Global Cancer Statistics 2018, prostate cancer ranks as the second-most frequent cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men. Although there is no sure way to prevent prostate cancer, maintaining healthy eating habits (e.g., consuming more vegetables and fruits) has been suggested as an approach that might lower the risk of prostate cancer. Mushrooms have a long history of being consumed as food and used in Asian medicines. However, research on the health effects of mushrooms has only emerged and been developed in recent decades. To date, an increasing number of in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested the beneficial effects of mushrooms on health, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, antiviral, immunomodulation, and increasingly, anticancer properties.
In the present study, among men who enrolled in the Miyagi and Ohsaki cohort studies in Japan in 1990 and 1994, respectively, long-term follow-up indicates that frequent mushroom consumption is associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. The effect was especially pronounced in men age 50 or older and in those with relatively low in fruit and vegetable intake and high in meat and dairy intake.
In vivo and in vitro evidence has shown that mushrooms have the potential to prevent prostate cancer. However, the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident prostate cancer in humans has never been investigated. In the present study, a total of 36,499 men, aged 40–79 years, who participated in the Miyagi Cohort Study in 1990 and in the Ohsaki Cohort Study in 1994 were followed for a median of 13.2 years. Data on mushroom consumption (categorized as <1, 1–2 and ≥3 times/week) was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer incidence.
During 574,397 person-years of follow-up, 1,204 (3.3%) cases of prostate cancer were identified. Compared to participants with mushroom consumption <1 time/week, frequent mushroom intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer (1–2 times/week: HRs [95% CIs] = 0.92 [0.81, 1.05]; ≥3 times/week: HRs [95% CIs] = 0.83 [0.70, 0.98]; ptrend = 0.023). This inverse relationship was especially obvious among participants aged ≥50 years and did not differ by clinical stage of cancer and intake of vegetables, fruit, meat and dairy products. The present study showed an inverse relationship between mushroom consumption and incident prostate cancer among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men, suggesting that habitual mushroom intake might help to prevent prostate cancer.
In conclusion, the present prospective cohort study with long-term follow-up observed an inverse relationship between mushroom consumption and incident prostate cancer among 36,499 middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. This finding suggests that habitual mushroom intake might help to reduce prostate cancer risk. As always, further studies in other populations and settings are required to confirm this relationship.
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