Ganoderma lucidum induces cancer cell death via Cyclin CDK2 Pathway in Glioblastoma Cells
While you are all aware of our product, Infinimin®, and our research on Gliobastoma (A-172 - Brain Cancer), this study is a great example of showing just how powerful this "Mushroom of Immortality" really is!! This study walks through a very simple mechanism of how Ganoderma lucidum "arrests" or stops cancer cell growth! As always, more research is needed, but impressive study, and exciting to see this kind of research continue to push this field!!
Glioblastoma is one of the most common and most aggressive brain cancers. The current treatment is mainly surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but the results aren't always successful and more often than not, have extremely terrible side effects. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), also called “Lingzhi”, is a medicinal mushroom that has been used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases, including cancer. However, whether it is effective for treating cancer is still unclear. In the present study, the anti-tumor effect of a water extract of G. lucidum was investigated using brain tumor cells (U87 strain, ATTC, Manassas, VA, USA). The researchers used an analysis of cell viability, flow cytometry, the IncuCyte live-cell analysis system, and Western blotting to study its effects.
The water extract from G. lucidum inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase via the cyclin-CDK2 pathway in human brain tumor cells. In addition, the G. lucidum extract significantly inhibited cell migration and mesenchymal marker expression based on the IncuCyte live-cell assay and qRT-PCR analysis.
In summary, these anti-tumor effects in brain tumor cells suggest that G. lucidum may be useful for treating brain tumors.
Background (from authors of study)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive glioblastoma and has an annual incidence rate of 5.26 per 100,000 people per year; of the 17,000 individuals who are diagnosed each year, most have a poor prognosis and greatly reduced quality of life . According to the World Health Organization, glioblastoma is the most common primary brain neoplasm. From 60% to 75% of astrocytic tumors are classified as glioblastomas . Grade IV glioblastoma is the most malignant glioma. The standard treatment for diagnosed glioblastoma is to perform surgery when applicable followed by radiation therapy . Radiotherapy seems to be only related to prolonged progression-free
survival, as it can better control seizures, but there is no substantial difference in overall survival. In addition, patients with radiation therapy have a high risk of experiencing some complications, such as post-radiation leukoencephalopathy, which is characterized by dementia, gait disturbance, incontinence, and insufficient attention and executive function. Among patients with recurrent GBM, the progression-free survival at 6 months after being treated with temozolomide (TMZ) is only 21% [4,5]. The discovery of novel and effective agents for the treatment of GBM is, consequently, a pressing need.
Natural products with their highly complex bioactivities and functions play an important role in drug discovery for treating diseases .
Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines among Eastern countries and has been used in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries for more than 2000 years [7–9]. G. lucidum has been found to be an effective supplementary medicine for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in the past few decades. In addition, research in the last decade has shown that G. lucidum has a large number of pharmacological functions, such as enhancing immunity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. [10–16]. Moreover, it was reported
that G. lucidum polysaccharides, which are one of the main components, can suppress tumor progression, such as melanoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, bladder cancer, and colorectal cancer [7,8]. Water extract of G. lucidum generally consists of polysaccharides, which inhibit colorectal cancer by promoting apoptosis or cell cycle arrest and reduce the gene expression which is responsible for cell proliferation . In clinical trials, G. lucidum extract can also increase the survival rate of cancer patients .
Therefore, in this current study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of the water-soluble components of G. lucidum on glioblastoma and further investigated the possible mechanisms. A possible mechanism is protrayed in Figure 6.
The results suggested that water extract of G. lucidum induced apoptosis and inhibited the effect of migration in glioblastoma.
Remarkable study, feel free to read the full study in the PDF below to learn more.
We wish you the best in health,
~Infinitum Health Team
**(Main study) **.
An-Yi Cheng, et. al. Water-Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Induces Apoptosis and S-Phase Arrest via Cyclin-CDK2 Pathway in Glioblastoma Cells. Molecules2020, 25(16), 3585
(study link pdf below)
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