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Seaweed compounds inhibit binding of COVID-19, further research shows

Updated: Nov 14


Another remarkable study, continuing the effort around COVID-19 and seaweed research on inhibition, highlighting once again, one of our favorite extracts - fucoidan.  This is found in Laminaria japonica (aka Saccharina japonica) included in our product, Infinimin®



As in previous articles ("Seaweed Inhibits COVID-19", "Seaweeds to the Rescue") , research is really starting to take off in this area!! As with the previous studies, they have been consistent in using fucoidan from the same seaweed species, found in Laminaria japonica (aka Saccharina japonica) included in our Infinimin® brand!



The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (SGPs) and human angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2) are the two key targets for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Host cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is believed to interact with SARS-CoV-2 SGPs to facilitate host cell entry. In the first reference study, a series of polysaccharides from Saccharina japonica (AKA Laminaria Japonica) were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationship on the binding abilities of polysaccharides (oligosaccharides) to pseudotype particles, including SARS-CoV-2 SGPs, and ACE2 using surface plasmon resonance.


**Human Speak Interpretation**: We know that Saccharina japonica (AKA Laminaria Japonica) stops the binding of the COVID19 virus (from previous studies), now we want to see HOW it stops the binding.


Sulfated galactofucan (known as an acronym in the study as "SJ-D-S-H") and glucuronomannan (Gn) displayed strongly inhibited interaction between SARS-CoV-2 SGPs and heparin while showing negligible inhibition of the interaction between

SARS-CoV-2 SGPs and ACE2. The IC50 values of SJ-D-S-H and Gn in blocking heparin SGP binding were 27 and 231 nM, respectively. NMR analysis showed that the structure of SJ-D-S-H featured with a backbone of 1, 3-linked α-L-Fucp residues sulfated at C4 and C2/C4 and 1, 3-linked α-L-Fucp residues sulfated at C4 and branched with 1, 6-linked β-D-galacto-biose; Gn had a backbone of alternating 1, 4-linked β-D-GlcAp residues

and 1, 2-linked α-D-Manp residues.


**Human Speak Interpretation**: The backbone and certain carbon locations ("C4", "C2/C4") showed binding to the virus that is stronger than its ability to bind to the host. Therefore inhibiting binding and potential to create a disease and the seaweed compounds, as stated, effectively absorb it away from the host. This is not surprising as seaweeds have dealt with the most virulent waters for over 2 billion years and have created some of the most dramatic antiviral properties known to man. With 1 gallon of seawater harboring over 1000 viruses, its no surprise that this origin of algae has evolved a defense system like this (Lobban, et. al).

COVID-19 invades host cell by interacting with host cell surface GAGs through its SGPs. SPR studies confirmed that both monomeric and trimeric SARS-CoV-2 SGPs show very strong binding affinity to heparin, suggesting that heparin had multiple potential targets could be used in COVID-19 therapy. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) are polysaccharides obtained from brown algae. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine seaweeds have been suggested to have potential antiviral therapeutic activities. FCSPs from Adenocystis utricularis, Undaria pinnatifida, Stoechospermum marginatum, Cystoseira indica, Cladosiphon okamuranus or Fucus vesiculosus reportedly exhibit anti-HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VSV, Sindbis virus or HIV-1 by stimulating innate and adaptive immune defense, inhibition of cell adhesion (Stage I), viral replication (Stage II),

blockage of the reverse transcriptase (Stage III).


It is a good thing, Infinimin®, has not only Saccharina japonica (AKA Laminaria Japonica) but also Undaria pinnatifida and Fucus Vesiculosus to assist us.


Note, their research states using this seaweed species and its related compounds appear to show antiviral activity. Infinitum Health, LLC has not performed antiviral research yet on any of their products. Because they used the exact same species of seaweed for their antiviral research that is in our Infinimin® is completely coincidental. We provide the evidence and facts, you have to make the informed decision to buy.


Why is this important? Phrasing and semantics can get some companies into trouble. If we were to say, "Fatty Acids make you feel full and satiated and oh, by the way, our farm fresh Apples have fatty acids." This is a fact. Apples have fatty acids. Fatty acids play a role in helping you feel full. If we were to say, "Our apples CURE your appetite" - this is illegal. It is what is know as a "claim." If feeling "full" was a disease, this would be considered a "disease claim." Also illegal, and quite frankly, foolish. A company that specialized in CBD called CuraLeaf performed this on their blog sites and received what is called an FDA Warning Letter. Feel free to educate yourself on this process by reading their Warning Letter (HERE).


This current study showed that a seaweed species, has a compound, that appears to show stronger binding to specific enveloped viruses. FACT. More research is needed of course, but the researchers put together a pretty good evidence packet. Our product, also has this exact species of seaweed(s). FACT.


More specifically, this research showed that the sulfated galactofucan and glucuronomannan from the seaweed species, Saccharina japonica (AKA Laminaria Japonica), showed strong binding ability to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), suggesting that these polysaccharides might be good candidates for preventing and/or treating SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).


Here's to your health,


~Infinitum Health Team


References


(MAIN Reference for Article)

Weihua, J. et. al. The structure-activity relationship of the interactions of SARS-CoV-2

spike glycoproteins with glucuronomannan and sulfated galactofucan

from Saccharina japonica. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 163 (2020) 1649–1658.


(pdf available below for download)


The structure-activity relationship of t
.
Download • 2.59MB

C. Lobban, et. al. Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge Press. 1994


Kwon et al. Sulfated polysaccharides effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Cell Discovery (2020) 6:50


(pdf available below for download)


Sulfated polysaccharides effectively inh
.
Download • 2.17MB

Shuang Song, et. al. (Aug, 2020). Inhibitory activities of marine sulfated

polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2. Food Funct., 2020, 11, 7415.


(pdf available below for download)


Inhibitory activities of marine sulfated
.
Download • 2.22MB

Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "'Saccharina japonica new taxonomic name for Laminaria'". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.


World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)

http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=847543


The COVID 19 novel coronavirus pandemic 2020: seaweeds to the rescue?


Fucoidan (from seaweed) as potential inhibitor of Corona, HIV-1, Herpes, and other envelope viruses?

Seaweed supplementation to help prevent flu virus

Seaweed helps prime immune systems naturally and help with vaccines


FDA Guidance on Dietary Supplement Labeling


FDA Warning Letters Guidance Website


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